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This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. CrossRef Google Scholar. Google Scholar. Robert L. Christopher K. William M. Committee on Innovations in Computing and Communications et al. Peter Salus and Vinton G. To find reference to Culler, one has to dig deep into internet history. The following comprehensive internet histories, for instance, have no mention of his role: Committee on Innovations in Computing and Communications et al.
In the long run, the principle of unintended consequences became the foundation for virtually all conservative claims that society cannot be successfully reformed by design: For every positive intended consequence there is likely to be a negative unintended one. It is better from this perspective to simply let society develop naturally.
Kugler on Osborne, 'Aspects of Enlightenment: Social Theory and the Ethics of Truth'
In the words of Adam Ferguson , one of Montequieu's most able admirers, "nations stumble upon establishments which are indeed the result of human action, but not the execution of any human design. The establishments of men Taking his cue from Montesquieu, Ferguson attempted to write a "natural history of man" in An Essay on the History of Civil Society in , but Ferguson made a number of new arguments that were widely adopted by subsequent social theorists.
First, he temporalized Montesquieu's four modes of existence, creating a dynamic theory in which hunting, herding, agriculture, and commerce represented progressive stages in a temporal development that was repeated at different times in different places. Next, he emphasized the fact that people band together into societies not out of some rational expectation of meeting selfish needs, as Thomas Hobbes had proposed in the seventeenth century, but rather out of "a propensity to mix with the herd and, without reflection, to follow the crowd of his species" Ferguson , pp.
Nietzsche as Critic and Captive of Enlightenment
Finally, Ferguson argued that conflict, even to the extent of war, is often the vehicle for social advances: "Their wars Against the tradition of philosophical history initiated by Montesquieu and Ferguson, a second group of Enlightenment social theorists claimed that to argue for particular social arrangements from the simple fact of their historical existence was to grant the past far too much power over the future. I do not cast my eye on any particular nation or sect. I seek to describe things as they must essentially be, without considering what they have been, or in what country they may have been.
By examining and reasoning we arrive at knowing the truth self-evidently, and with all the practical consequences which result from it. Examples which appear to contrast with these consequences prove nothing Hutchinson , p. Among the most important social theorists to adopt this rational mechanist model were Claude-Adrien Helvetius and his utilitarian followers, including Jeremy Bentham in Britain and Cesare Beccaria in Italy.
According to this group, all social theory must begin from the fundamental insight that humans are motivated solely by a desire to be happy; so the goal of political and moral philosophy should be to create the greatest net pleasure for the greatest number in society. Because members of the utilitarian school generally assumed that the private happiness of one person was likely to diminish the happiness of others, they proposed to establish sanctions that would offer pleasurable rewards to those who acted for the general good and punish those who acted in opposition to it.
Among those who advocated a more experimental approach to social theory, the tradition initiated by Francis Hutcheson , David Hartley , and Adam Smith was undoubtedly most important in terms establishing a new foundation for ethics and morality. This group generally found strong evidence that humans acted not only out of self-interest, but also out of a social instinct or sense of sympathy.
Aspects of Enlightenment: Social Theory and the Ethics of Truth
For most of these social theorists, there seemed to be a natural accommodation between the well-being of the individual and that of the group that was nicely articulated in Smith's image of the "invisible hand" that ordered economic activity for the general benefit if each actor worked to forward his own interests. This approach led to a laissez faire or naturalistic approach to moral and ethical behavior.
The heritage of Enlightenment social theory remains current in virtually all disagreements among different groups concerned with policies relating to science and technology. The principle of unintended consequences, as directly derived from Ferguson, for example, was still being appealed to by conservative social theorists such as Friederich A.
It later became the foundation for arguments by the often politically liberal or radical critics of rapid technological development. The consequentialist ethical tradition established among eighteenth-century utilitarians continues to inform policy makers at the beginning of the twenty-first century in the form of cost-benefit analyses so favored by advocates of development.
And the laissez faire admonitions of the Smithian school continue to resonate in the market-driven analyses of public choice economic theorists. Brandon, William. Athens: Ohio University Press. The title characterizes this excellent work beautifully. The discussions of how descriptions of indigenous American societies produced a change in traditional roman notions of "liberty," divorcing them from particular corporate status, are particularly interesting.
An Essay on the History of Civil Society, ed. Duncan Forbes. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press. Important example of the empirical and "conservative" approach to society in the enlightenment.
Enlightenment Social Theory | creasinosas.tk
Very good set of essays considering enlightenment discussions of topics that in the early s would be identified with the social sciences. Gay, Peter.
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- Consciousness and Perceptual Experience: An Ecological and Phenomenological Approach.
- The Cost of the Enlightenment;
- The Cost of the Enlightenment!
Both types of suicide result from a weakness of social solidarity and an inability for society to adequately integrate its individuals. A final consequence is that society has no central measure for truth and no authoritative way of organizing or understanding the world.
In such a state, there arises the potential for conflict between individuals or groups who have different ways of understanding the world. This same underlying disorganization was preventing European society from generating the collective force necessary for the creation of new institutions and a new sacred object. The death of the gods is a symptom of a sickened society, one that has lost its internal structure and descended into an-archy, or a society with no authority and no definitive principles, moral or otherwise, to build itself on.
In spite of such a glum analysis, Durkheim did have hope for the future. According to the later Durkheim religion is part of the human condition and as long as humans are grouped in collective life, they will inevitably form a religion of some sort. Europe could thus be characterized as in a state of transition; out of the ashes of Christianity, a new religion would eventually emerge. This new religion would form around the sacred object of the human person as it is represented in the individual, the only element common to all in a society that is becoming more and more diverse and individualized.
What is its conception of individual? To begin, the cult of the individual begins, like all religions according to Durkheim, with collective effervescence. The first moments of collective effervescence for the cult of the individual could be found in the democratic revolutions taking place in Europe and elsewhere at the end of the 18 th and during the 19 th centuries. The French Revolution is the perfect example of such a release of collective energy.
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The concept of individual that these social movements were embracing follows strongly the line of thinking that was established during the Enlightenment; it is based on a general idea of human dignity and does not lead to a narcissistic, egotistical worship of the self. In other words, the cult of the individual presupposes an autonomous individual endowed with rationality, born both free and equal to all other individuals in these respects.
Belief in this abstract conception of individual creates the ideal around which the cult revolves. With this sacred object at its core, the cult of the individual also contains moral ideals to pursue. These moral ideals that define society include the ideals of equality, freedom, and justice. Furthermore, with society becoming more diverse, the respect, tolerance, and promotion of differences become important social virtues. Considering its ideals and beliefs, the cult of the individual also has a political dimension. Modern democracy, which encodes, institutionalizes, and protects the rights of the individual, is the form of government whereby Western societies best express their collective belief in the dignity of the individual.
It is by protecting the rights of the individual in this way, somewhat paradoxically, that society is best preserved. Rationality is also of primary importance to this religion. The cult of the individual has as a first dogma the autonomy of reason and as a first right free inquiry. Authority can and must be rationally grounded in order for the critically rational individual to have respect for social institutions.