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If thine enemy hunger, feed him; if he thirst, give him drink. Be not overcome with evil, but overcome evil with good. I do not think that Kwang-dze takes notice of it to illustrate it after his fashion. The fruit of it has yet to be developed. He says in his sixty-first chapter, 'What makes a state great is its being like a low-lying, down-flowing stream;--it becomes the. The female always overcomes the male by her stillness. Stillness may be considered a sort of abasement.
In the one case the abasement tends to gaining adherents; in the other case, to procuring favour. The great state only wishes to unite men together and nourish them; a small state only wishes to be received by, and to serve, the other. Each gets what it desires, but the great state must learn to abase itself.
The fact is deplorable. No one saw the misery arising from it, and exposed its unreasonableness more unsparingly, than Kwang-dze. But it was all in vain in his time, as it has been in all the centuries that have since rolled their course. Philosophy, philanthropy, and religion have still to toil on, 'faint, yet pursuing,' believing that the time will yet come when humility and love shall secure the reign of peace and good will among the nations of men. In his thirty-first chapter he says, 'Arms, however beautiful, are instruments of evil omen; hateful, it may be said, to all creatures.
To do that is near losing the gentleness which is so precious. Thus it is that when weapons are actually crossed, he who deplores the situation conquers. Its salient features have been set forth somewhat fully.
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It is tolerated by the government, but not patronised as it was when emperors and empresses seemed to think more of it than of Confucianism. It is by the spread of knowledge, which it has always opposed, that its overthrow and disappearance will be brought about ere long. There is hardly an historical allusion in it. Only one chapter, the twentieth, has somewhat of an autobiographical character. It tells us, however, of no incidents of his life. But they are not historical.
He often comes on the stage himself, and there is an air of verisimilitude in his descriptions, possibly also a certain amount of fact about them; but we cannot appeal to them as historical testimony. When he wrote, about the beginning of the first century B. He was a curator in the Royal Library; and when Confucius visited the capital in the year B. He might have other objects in mind as well; but however that was, the two met. Moreover, when the superior man gets his opportunity, he mounts aloft; but when the time is against him, he is carried along by the force of circumstances.
I have heard that a good merchant, though he have rich treasures safely stored, appears as if he were poor; and that the superior man, though his virtue be complete, is yet to outward seeming stupid. Put away your proud air and many desires, your insinuating habit and wild will. They are of no advantage to you;--this is all I have to tell you. But the runner may be snared, the swimmer hooked, and the flyer shot by the arrow.
But there is the dragonI cannot tell how he mounts on the wind through the clouds, and rises to heaven. At the time of this interview he was himself in his thirty-fifth year, and the other was in his eighty-eighth. Let me insist on your first composing for me a book. He then went away, and it is not known where he died. He was a superior man, who liked to keep himself unknown.
The characters may mean 'the old boy,' and so understood have given rise to various fabulous legends; that his mother had carried him in her womb for seventy-two years some say, for eighty-one , and that when born the child had the white hair of an old man. Julien has translated the fabulous legend of Ko Hung of our fourth century about him. Looking at the meaning of the two names, I am surprised no one has characterized Lao-dze as the Chinese Seneca. Otherwise, the record is free from anything to raise suspicion about it.
It is difficult, however, to reconcile this last statement with a narrative in the end of Kwang-dze's third Book. Second, Khien's account of Kwang-dze is still more brief. We cannot be wrong therefore in assigning his period to the latter half of the third, and earlier part of the fourth century B. He was thus a contemporary of Mencius. They visited at the same courts, and yet neither ever mentions the other.
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They were the two ablest debaters of their day, and fond of exposing what they deemed heresy. But it would only be. The ablest scholars of his day could not escape his satire nor reply to it, while he allowed and enjoyed himself with his sparkling, dashing style; and thus it was that the greatest men, even kings and princes, could not use him for their purposes.
Kwang-dze, however, only laughed and said to them, "A thousand ounces of silver are a great gain to me, and to be a high noble and minister is a most honourable position. But have you not seen the victim-ox for the border sacrifice? It is carefully fed for several years, and robed with rich embroidery that it may be fit to enter the Grand Temple. When the time comes for it to do so, it would prefer to be a little pig, but it cannot get to be so.
Go away quickly, and do not soil me with your presence. The names are quoted by him from memory, or might be insisted on as instances of different readings. I had rather amuse and enjoy myself in the midst of a filthy ditch than be subject to the rules and restrictions in the court of a sovereign. Khien concludes his account of Kwang-dze with the above story, condensed by him, probably, from two of Kwang's own narratives, in par.
It is interesting in itself, however, and I introduce it here: 'When Kwang-dze was about to die, his disciples signified their wish to give him a grand burial. What would you add to them? Such were among the last words of Kwang-dze. His end was not so impressive as that of Confucius; but it was in keeping with the general magniloquence and strong assertion of independence that marked all his course.
The brilliant pages of Kwang-dze contain little more than his ingenious defence of his master's speculations, and an aggregate of illustrative narratives sparkling with the charms of his composition, but in themselves for the most part unbelievable, often grotesque and absurd. This treatise, on the other hand, is more of what we understand by a sermon or popular tract.
It eschews all difficult discussion, and sets forth a variety of traits of character and actions which are good, and a still greater variety of others which are bad, exhorting to the cultivation and performance of the former, and warning against the latter. It describes at the outset the machinery to secure the record of men's doings, and the infliction of the certain retribution, and concludes with insisting on the wisdom of repentance and reformation.
At the same time it does not carry its idea of retribution beyond death, but declares that if the reward or punishment is not completed in the present life, the remainder will be received by the posterity of the good-doer and of the offender. Wylie, 'are innumerable; it has appeared from time to time in almost every conceivable size, shape, and style of execution.
Many commentaries have been written upon it, and it is frequently published with a collection of several hundred anecdotes, along with pictorial illustrations, to illustrate every paragraph seriatim. It is deemed a great act of merit to aid by voluntary contribution towards the gratuitous distribution of this work. The author of the treatise is not known, but, as Mr.
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Wylie also observes, it appears to have been written during the Sung dynasty. The earliest mention of it which I have met with is in the continuation. Immediately after it other works of the eleventh century are mentioned. To that same century therefore we may reasonably refer the origin of the Kan Ying Phien. I quoted on page 13 the view of Hardwick, the Christian Advocate of Cambridge, that 'the indefinite expression.
Khin, however, soon passed away; what remained in permanency from it was only the abolition of the feudal kingdom. The eight spirits were The Lord of Heaven; 2.
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The Lord of Earth; 3. The Lord of War; 4. The Lord of the Yang operation; 5. The Lord of the Yin operation; 6. The Lord of the Moon; 7.
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The Lord of the Sun; and 8. The Lord of the Four Seasons. See Mayers's C.
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Manual, pp. His authority is the sixth of Sze-ma Khien's monographs. Pang, the founder of the dynasty of Han, in B. Abandoning then a political career, he spent the latter years of his life in a vain quest for the elixir of life. The present patriarch--for I suppose the same man is still alive--made a journey from his residence not many years ago, and was interviewed by several foreigners in Shanghai.
As early as the time of Confucius there were recluses in the country, men who had withdrawn from the world, disgusted with its. When their representatives of our early centuries saw the Buddhists among them with their images, monasteries, and nunneries, their ritual and discipline, they proceeded to organise themselves after a similar fashion. They built monasteries and nunneries, framed images, composed liturgies, and adopted a peculiar mode of tying up their hair.
He is the god in the court of heaven to whom the spirits of the body and of the hearth in our treatise proceed at stated times to report for approval or condemnation the conduct of men. Other manifestoes of a milder form, and more like our tractate, are also continually being issued as from one or other of what are called the state gods, whose temples are all in the charge of the same monks.
The present patriarch, as a married man, would seem to be able still to resist the law. See Dr. Eitel's third edition of his 'Three Lectures on Buddhism,' pp. The edition of the Penal Code to which he refers is of The name that can be named is not the enduring and.