Toward a Framework of Resources for Learning to Teach : Lauren Gatti :
These beginning teachers had experienced different teacher preparation programs. One recommendation is the importance of a second science methods course, coordinated with an extended teaching experience, which may be critical to teachers developing deeper understanding of reform-based teaching. Although all interns were given support in their yearlong internship, a few PDS prospective teachers used inquiry-based strategies and others used primarily teacher-centered traditional approaches.
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Toward a Framework of Resources for Learning to Teach
Patricia J. Friedrichsen, Sandra K. Abell, Enrique M. Pareja, Patrick L. Brown, Deanna M. Lankford and Mark J. New teachers should be engaged in communities of practice, in which teachers work together to assess student work, reflect on their practice, and share their successes in teaching. Friedrichsen et al. During their study none of the four participants used reform-based, inquiry-oriented teaching practices. Their results indicated there were few differences between teachers with prior teaching experience and those who had little experience. Curriculum design for inquiry: Preservice elementary teachers' mobilization and adaptation of science curriculum materials.
Curriculum materials that reflect reform-based methods are important tools for helping teachers engage students in inquiry science learning. Forbes and Davis aimed to gain a better understanding of how preservice elementary teachers are able to use existing science curriculum materials in order to develop inquiry-oriented science lessons. Finally, Forbes and Davis suggest their findings could help curriculum designers to better meet the needs of beginning science teachers.
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Rethinking Clinical Experiences for Social Studies Teacher Education
Journal of Research in Science Teaching The Journal of Research in Science Teaching publishes reports for science education researchers and practitioners on issues of science teaching and learning and science education policy. Teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the implementation of science education reform strands Jodi J.
Haney, Charlene M. Czerniak and Andrew T. Evaluating the impact of science-enrichment programs on adolescents' science motivation and confidence: The splashdown effect Jayne E. Stake and Kenneth R. The cultural production of science in reform-based physics: Girls' access, participation, and resistance Heidi B. High school students' identities, participation and aspirations in science, engineering, and medicine Pamela R. Aschbacher, Erika Li and Ellen J. Roth This study follows an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 33 high school students to explore why some who were once very interested in science, engineering, or medicine SEM majors or careers decided to leave the pipeline in high school while others persisted.
Dana Vedder-Weiss and David Fortus There is a growing awareness that science education should center not just on knowledge acquisition but developing the foundation for lifelong learning.
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Celebrating 50 Years! He defined scientific inquiry as part of the content of science itself. Rutherford also discussed two ways teachers should engage their students in inquiry learning: 1 inquiry as content, where the process of discovery and investigation is integrated into the examination of science facts, laws, principles, and theories; and 2 inquiry as technique, where students conduct first-hand investigations of select topics to understand the nature of scientific inquiry as it actually happens.
Rutherford was a key contributor to Harvard Project Physics. As a second reason, even though the recent Framework for K Science Education National Research Council, gives less time and attention to the nature and history of science, understanding the history and philosophy of science remains inextricably intertwined with reform-based science teaching. Development and learning Piaget, J. I understand from the preface of this issue of JRST that it was very difficult to convince Piaget to attend or present at international conferences, and I believe that the 50 delegates were privileged to attend the two conferences where he was chief consultant.
The influence of Piagetian theory on this avenue of research in science education was strong and radical, but not without controversy. This paper represents, for me, the kernel of the successful underpinning Piagetian theory of the work on cognitive acceleration by Philip Adey, Michael Shayer, Carolyn Yates, and colleagues that has been one of the few research programs that has genuinely translated into measurable cognitive gains and improvement in student achievement in science.
Extended wait-time, Rowe continued, also increases the number of students who participate including those labeled struggling by teachers and the kinds of responses they generate including new questions, evidence-inference statements, and responses to other students. She recorded over a thousand hours of instruction in elementary classrooms where NSF-funded, inquiry-oriented materials were implemented. She then used a servo-chart plotter to systematically track the speech, pauses, and silences of teachers and students during their conversations.
Indeed, it took Rowe see also b, c three articles across three JRST issues to fully articulate her research methods and findings. Rowe viewed wait-time as central to effective implementation of inquiry instruction. The work of Rowe and others can inform our understanding of how best to promote student-student and student-teacher talk in the teaching and learning of science.
Rather than taking a position that teachers must wait until students are cognitively ready, Lawson and Wollman conducted a well-planned and thoughtful experiment to illustrate the complex interplay between development and instruction. The study showed that given appropriate instruction children are capable to achieve a cognitive level higher than the one indicated by the stage-like developmental theory.
The reasoning test has become one of the most widely used instruments in science education and been frequently chosen as the criterion to establish the validity of a newly developed test.
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This valid and reliable instrument of scientific reasoning allows follow-up researchers to explore important issues in science learning and teaching, and is an important resource for research on scientific thinking, inquiry skills, and science abilities. Science teaching and the development of reasoning Science teaching and the development of reasoning Karplus, R.
As the late Karplus stated on p. Additionally, three significant contributions are made in Karplus First, the article suggests a close connection between the formation of reasoning patterns and concept learning. Of much importance today, recent research has shown that scientific reasoning and conceptual development are intertwined in complicated ways. Second, the three-phase learning cycle has been one of the most influential instructional models in science and modified into various forms for constructivist and inquiry learning.
This article captures the original ideas and theoretical foundations behind the model. Third, the notion of self-regulation and the active role played by the individual are recognized and emphasized in the article. These topics are still prominent in current studies of science learning, particularly those in the student-centered settings.
Having some experience in teaching the nature of science, I began working with Norm Lederman. Working with high school students, Fleming found that the primary domain of reasoning for these adolescents lie within the area of social cognition. Testing this assumption became the focus of my dissertation and subsequent work e. It turns out that the relationship is much more complicated than originally assumed, and delineating its complexity has occupied the efforts of many science educators.
Fleming borrowed the term socio-scientific issues SSI from a philosophy of science text Wessel, , but he was the first to introduce the expression to the science education community.
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This is not to say that science content and practices should not be a primary focus in the negotiation of SSI, but rather, that most students require significant supports in order to incorporate their scientific understandings as they consider complex SSI. The STS movement remained prominent more than a decade beyond this publication. In the early s, researchers began distinguishing SSI-themed work from the broader STS projects, and the themes Fleming discussed became central to these distinctions.
Cognitive consequences of student estimation on linear and logarithmic scales Berger, C. Yet in spite of our sensory limitations, we have made tremendous strides in scientific understanding at these extremes of scale, and this is reflected in our K science curricula. A strand of my research has explored how people from elementary age through scientifically accomplished adults think about these types of scientific phenomena. One key resource to support the necessary thinking intuitively or mathematically is to be able to think logarithmically rather than linearly.
After the dart hit at the student-estimated location, students got immediate feedback on the actual numerical position of the target, and repeated the exercise for 10 targets. Results showed that while linear estimations got progressively faster across the 10 trials, logarithmic ones did not, highlighting the need for cognitive processing time when thinking logarithmically.
Both the linear and logarithmic tasks showed the lowest errors when the target was near one of the labeled endpoints and the highest errors when it was farthest from any labeled endpoint, with this error difference more pronounced for the logarithmic scenario.
This result highlighted that when thinking logarithmically, having benchmark reference points as cognitive touchpoints is even more important than it is when thinking linearly. This tradition is evident in studies about relationship between discourse, cognition, and the culture of science learning. Two manuscripts exemplify this history. Their work highlighted how understanding an image was differentially affected by producing a visual representation or verbal descriptions of the phenomenon. The power of this research lies in the illumination of the role of discourse as a dynamic cognitive device that has many forms symbolic, mathematic, textual, and linguistic.
Conversely, Lee highlighted how science literacy has long be conceived us as the property of the western world and has largely misused the linguistic resources embedded in the everyday culture and discourse of people all over the world. Developing a comprehensive understanding of how discourse, culture, and cognition are critical dimensions of science learning can enhance the science education community.
Fortunately, the seeds of intellectual growth were sown for the JARST community to nourish for years to come.
I found the article powerful because of the lucid and critical connections Rick Duschl and Drew Gitomer were able to make between the history and philosophy of science, cognitive psychology, science education theory, and the dynamics of the classroom, including assessment. The most commanding aspect of the paper is the description of portfolio culture that Duschl and Gitomer align with their view of conceptual change teaching and learning and integrate with assessment. What was new at that time for me, was the notion of students making a collection of their work that would enable them to evaluate their own knowledge claims and provide evidence of their own conceptual development.
I was excited when I first read this article by the idea that creating a portfolio is an intentional and autonomous activity that students can undertake to take control of their own learning. The portfolio mechanism, described by Duschl and Gitomer, created for probably the first time in my mind a practical method where learning was transformed from something the teacher does to the learner, to something the learner does for themselves with the guidance of the teacher.
I found three other aspects of the paper very helpful. First, the overview of conceptual change perspectives on learning included all the seminal papers up to that time and mapped the critical changes in the way that learning had been viewed historically.